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Summary of pharmacological knowledge
Chapter II Pharmacodynamics
Pharmacodynamics (Pharmacodynamics): It is a biological resource science that studies the effects of drugs on the body and the mechanism of action.
Adverse Drug Reactions:
1. Side effects: Discomfort unrelated to the treatment at the therapeutic dose can be predicted but difficult to avoid.
2. Toxic reactions: The harmful reactions that occur in the body when the drug is overdosed or accumulated too much are serious and can be avoided foreseeably.
3. Aftereffects: The pharmacological effects of the blood drug concentration after the drug has dropped below the threshold.
4. Withdrawal response: the exacerbation of the original disease after sudden withdrawal, double-rebound reaction.
5, allergic reactions: the body's abnormal immune response after receiving drug stimulation, also known as allergic reactions.
6. Specific response:
Receptor: A substance that specifically binds to a receptor is called a ligand, and a ligand that activates the receptor is called an agonist, which blocks the activity of the receptor
The ligand is called an antagonist.
Agonists: both affinity and intrinsic activity.
Antagonists: have strong affinity, but lack intrinsic activity. Divided into competitive and non-competitive.
Second messenger: cyclophosphine adenosine (cAMP), cyclophosphine guanosine (cGMP), inositol phospholipids, calcium ions, pinenes
Chapter III Pharmacokinetics
Pharmacokinetics (pharmacokinetics): Study the body's handling of drugs, that is, the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs in the body. Dissociative drugs have high polarity and low fat solubility and are difficult to diffuse; non-dissociative drugs have low polarity and large fat solubility, and easily diffuse across the membrane.
Chapter 6 Choline Receptor Agonists
I. M and N Choline Receptor Agonists: Acetylcholine (ACH) Effect:
1, M-like effects: slow heart rate, vasodilation, weakened myocardial contractility, dilatation of almost all blood vessels, decreased blood pressure, stomach
Intestinal, urinary and bronchial smooth muscles are excited, glandular secretion is increased, eye sphincter and ciliary contraction.
2, N-like action: Agitate N1 choline receptors, manifested as smooth muscle contraction in the digestive tract, bladder, etc., glandular secretion
Increased myocardial contractility and small blood vessel contraction, blood pressure rises. Excessive doses shift from excitement to inhibition. Excite
Acting on the N2 choline receptor causes contraction of skeletal muscle.
3. Central role: difficult to penetrate the blood-brain barrier
Second, M choline receptor agonist: pilocarpine
Effects: 1. Eye: manifested as shrinking pupils, reducing intraocular pressure and regulating spasm. 2, glands: increased secretion, especially sweat and salivary glands.
Application: 1. Glaucoma 2. Reduction of pupils
3. N Choline Receptor Agonists: Nicotine, Lobelin
Chapter 7 Anticholinyl Esterase Drugs and Cholinesterase Resuscitation Drugs
First, reversible cholinesterase inhibitors: neostigmine: oral absorption is small and irregular, does not show a central role.
Application: 1. Myasthenia gravis 2. Abdominal bloating and urinary retention after surgery 3. Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia
4. The detoxification of muscle relaxant is another: poison lentiline
Second, irreversible cholinesterase inhibitors: organic phosphates
Symptoms of poisoning: 1. M-like action symptoms 2. N-like action symptoms 3. Central inhibitory system symptoms
3. Cholinesterase resuscitation agent: iodophosphine: prepared for immediate use, intravenous injection of clodoxine: intramuscular or intravenous injection
Chapter 8 Choline Receptor Blockers
1, M choline receptor blockers: smooth muscle antispasmodics: atropine
2, N1 choline receptor blockers: also known as ganglion blockers, mainly used to lower blood pressure, hexamethylene ammonium, mecamylamine