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Lilun Yu Dangdai
This issue focuses on accelerating the development of modern agriculture
Restrictive Factors and Countermeasures of Financial Support for Rural Land Circulation
Of course, it can only be used for agricultural development and not for real estate. I. Brief Introduction to China's Rural Land Transfer Policy Land transfer means that the farmers who own the land contract management right retain the contract right and transfer the land management right (use right) to other farmers or the economy. organization. Land circulation can revitalize assets, make the value of land per unit area double, increase farmers' income, and accelerate agricultural modernization. Regarding the transfer of rural land, the Third Plenary Session of the Seventeenth Central Committee of the Communist Party of China issued a special policy: to strengthen the management and service of the transfer of land contract management rights, and to establish and improve the market for the transfer of land contract management rights. In accordance with the principles of law, voluntariness, and compensation, farmers are allowed to transfer land contractual management rights in the form of subcontracting, leasing, swapping, transfer, share cooperation, etc., and develop various forms of moderate scale operations. Where possible, large-scale operating entities such as family farms and specialized farmer cooperatives can be set up. The development of large professional households, and the family contract responsibility system, the transfer of rural land is also a peasant's own creation. In the 30 years of rural reform, through two rounds of land contracting, 95% of China's farmers have contracted land, and 97% of farmland has been operated by households. However, with the development of the situation, some new situations have emerged in the two-tier operation system of unified management and integration. From the perspective of "divided", the main position of farmers in the market is very fragile. From the perspective of "unified", the collective economy is mostly weak and does not meet the requirements for the development of modern agriculture. The rural service system is no longer suitable, the new service system is not yet complete, and small productions of millions of households are difficult to adapt to the ever-changing large market. In some places with more people and less land, the contradiction between people and land is becoming increasingly prominent, and farmers and industrial and commercial enterprises willing to operate the land urgently need land and expand the scale of operation. As a result, farmers in some places spontaneously carry out land transfers through swaps, subcontracts, and transfers. Practice has proved that the transfer of rural land has eased the contradiction between man and land, moved some farmers out of the land, and has also promoted agricultural scale operations, which is a good way to improve the comparative benefits of agriculture. The central government respects the pioneering spirit of farmers, and enthusiastically supports the new thing of land transfer, and proposes to regulate the transfer of land contractual management rights in accordance with the requirements of perfect management and enhanced services. In addition, rural land transfer will not change the existing land contract system. The decision of the Third Plenary Session of the Seventeenth Central Committee of the Communist Party of China proposes: "Give farmers more and more secure land contracting management rights. The existing land contracting relationship must be stable and permanent." The relevant central government document also stipulates: "Rural land transfer , Must not change the collective ownership of land, must not change the land use, must not damage farmers' land contracting rights. "That is to say, after the transfer of rural land, it is equivalent to" separation of three powers ": the management right belongs to the transferee, and the contracting right belongs to the contractor. Farmers also have collective ownership. After the transfer of land, some localities in China have already carried out the right to transfer land contracted management rights and develop moderate scale operations.
Various forms of practice have been implemented, mainly including five forms of rural land swap, rural land lease, rural land share cooperation, rural land shareholding, and rural land subcontracting: (1) Land swap type. Rural land swap refers to the land contractor within the village collective economic organization to facilitate farming or large-scale planting needs. Second, China's rural land transfer practice development and other uses; farmers enjoy land transfer rights, such as rent, share dividends, etc. Wait. This also reflects the purpose of the central government to effectively safeguard farmers' rights and interests. In short, no reform will be as relevant and involved as land. Improving the income distribution of farmers in land appreciation was written into the report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China. The introduction of the "Regulations on Rural Collective Land Compensation" has been on the agenda of the State Council. The Central Rural Work Conference on December 22, 2012 emphasized that it is necessary to "hold, that is, to fully protect the bottom line of farmers' land contracting" right to operate, and cannot restrict or force farmers to transfer contracted land. It is necessary to "seize two key points", that is, focus on cultivating new-type business entities, focusing on guiding ordinary farmers to improve intensive and specialized levels, and supporting joint-family operations, large professional households, and family farms; focusing on developing new forms of new-type farmer cooperation Organizations and diversified service entities can achieve effective docking with the market by increasing the degree of organization.
This issue focuses on the 2013 issue ︵ Total issue 5 ︶ 2013 Issue 2 340
2 2 340